Sanskrit (संस्कृतम्) is a language of ancient India with a documented history of about 4000 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its various variants and dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.
Index of Sanskrit
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- Sanskrit Literature
- Sanskrit name
Sanskrit is an old Indo-Aryan language. As one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent place in Indo-European Studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as many other extinct languages with Hittit, Luwian, the old Avestan and the historical importance of Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia. It reveals its linguistic lineage for Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit language and literature originated in ancient India. We don’t know definitely when it developed, but the experts believe it was about 1500 B.C. The Sanskrit language is divided into two periods.
Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, it is traceable for 2th millennium BC in one form, with Rigveda as the earliest known composition. The form of a more sophisticated and standardized grammar known as Classical Sanskrit emerged in the 1st century BC, in which Pizini emerged with the treatise. Sanskrit, however, is not necessarily the original language of many Sanskrit languages, classical Sanskrit. For example, many, modern, North Indian, subcontinental daughter languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Punjabi and Nepali are included.
Here below, this table has some knowledge of Sanskrit language-
|1.||Region||South Asia, Parts of Southeast Asia|
|2.||Era||c. 2nd millennium BCE – 600 BCE (Vedic Sanskrit), 600 BCE – present (Classical Sanskrit)|
|3.||Revival||24,828 people in India have registered Sanskrit as their mother tongue.|
|4.||Language family||Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sanskrit|
|5.||Early form||Vedic Sanskrit|
|6.||Writing system||Devanagari, also written in various other Brahmic scripts.|
Country or Region
Sanskrit language is the identity of Indian civilization. Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the eighth schedule of the Constitution of India.
The historical presence of Sanskrit language is certified in a comprehensive geography beyond the Indian subcontinent. Inscription and literary evidence shows that Sanskrit language was already being adopted in monks, religious pilgrims and traders, in 1-milibind CE in Southeast Asia and Central Asia.
The Indian subcontinent has been the geographic range of the largest collection of the ancient and pre-18th century Sanskrit manuscripts and inscriptions. Beyond ancient India, significant collections of Sanskrit manuscripts and inscriptions have been found in China (particularly the Tibetan monasteries), Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia. Sanskrit inscriptions, manuscripts or its remnants, including some of the oldest known Sanskrit written texts, have been discovered in dry high deserts and mountainous terrains such as in Nepal, Tibet, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. Some Sanskrit texts and inscriptions have also been discovered in Korea and Japan.
Your success and progress in learning Sanskrit depends on how dedicated and interested you are in learning it. It is more important to focus on your learning itself and enjoy it rather than the goal or the fruits of actions. Learning Sanskrit itself is a great experience.
I would list all the resources that have been helping you. I will give both offline and online resources. I think I have moved from the beginner level to intermediate level, but only an expert can evaluate your progress.
Definition of Sanskrit-
- An ancient Indo-Aryan language that is the classical language of India and of Hinduism.
- Classical Sanskrit together with the older Vedic and various later modifications of classical Sanskrit.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the eighth schedule of the Constitution of India. Sanskrit language, an Old Indo-Aryan language in which the most ancient documents are the Vedas, composed in what is called Vedic Sanskrit. Sanskrit is a classical Indian language.
The name Sanskrit means ‘refined’, ‘sacred’and ‘sanctified’. Hence, Sanskrit was not thought of as a specific language but as a refined or perfected sacred tongue.
Sanskrit is the name of the language that was spoken by the seers of prehistoric India who have expressed their knowledge, wisdom and belief in that language.
Sat (Sanskrit) Sat ( Sanskrit: सत्) is a Sanskrit word meaning “the true essence and that “which is unchangeable” of an entity, species or existence. Sat is a common prefix in ancient Indian literature and variously implies that which is good, true, virtuous, being, happening, real, existing, enduring, lasting, essential.
5 Sanskrit Words
- Santosha(संतोष:)- Contentment.
- Upeksha(उपेक्षा:)- Equanimity.
- Sraddha(श्रद्धा)- Faith
- Bhavana(भावना)- To cultivate
- Satya(सत्य:)- Truth and honesty.
According to sanskritsounds.com: Sanskrit is 100% phonetic: each written character is always pronounced the same way. This makes Sanskrit very easy to learn and pronounce. A spelling bee in Sanskrit would be impossible. Rhythm is built into the language, each syllable being either short (one beat) or long (2 or more beats).
Sanskrit is highly respected in India as their sacred, divine, mother language. To honor this tradition it is important to spend a little time to learn at least the basics of pronunciation.
Reading Sanskrit worendered in English letters with no diacritical marks, and pronouncing them as an English word, almost always results in poor pronunciation, and often the expression of a completely different energy. Here are some blatant examples: mala means “impurity” and in Ayurveda translates to “feces, urine or sweat” mālā means “necklace of beads, garland, rosary” OR ananda means “unhappiness” while ānanda means “enhanced happiness, bliss” chanting a mantra, especially a single-seed “bija” mantra, releases specific energy into the world. The more the sound (̥śabda), intention, meaning (artha) and visualization (yantra) align, the more powerful the desired effect will be. Even if the mantra is recited mentally, it is still based on the audible sound.
Chanting divine names of gods and goddesses invokes the energies they represent. If these are mispronounced, then the resulting vibration may shift into something that is not intended.
Grammar of Sanskrit language is a complex oral system, rich nominal declension, and widespread use of compound nouns. This study was done and subsequently codified by Sanskrit grammarians from the Vedic period (about 8th century BC), culminating in the 6th century BC peasian grammar.
Sanskrit grammatical tradition began in late Vedic India and culminated in the Astadhyayi of Panini, which consists of 3990 sutras. About a century after Panini (around 400 BCE), katyayana composed vartikas on the Paninian sutras. Patanjali, who lived three centuries after Panini, wrote the Mahabhasya, the “Great Commentary” on the Astadhyayi and Vartikas. Because of these three ancient Sanskrit grammarians this grammar is called Trimuni Vyakarana. Jayaditya and Vamana wrote a commentary named Kasika in 600 CE. Kaiyata’s (12th century AD) commentary on Patanjali’s Mahabhasya also exerted much influence on the development of grammar, but more influential was the Rupavatara of Buddhist scholar Dharmakirti which popularised simplified versions of Sanskrit grammar.
Learn Sanskrit Online
There are many way to learn Sanskrit online. Some of them are given below:
Learn Vedic Sanskrit
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group. It is the ancient language of the Vedas of Hinduism, texts compiled over the period of the mid- 2nd to mid-1st millennium BCE. It was orally preserved, predating the advent of Brahmi script by several centuries.
A mantra is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of woin Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and/or spiritual powers. A mantra may or may not have a syntactic structure or literal meaning.
Here are 5 examples of Sanskrit Mantra-
ॐ त्र्यम्बकं यजामहे सुगंधिं पुष्टिवर्धनम्।
उर्वारुकमिव बन्धनान्मृत्योर्मुक्षिय माऽमृतात् ॥
ॐ भुर्भुवः स्वः तत्सोवितुवरेण्यं, भर्गोदेवस्य धीमहि धियो योनः प्रचोदयात् ॥
ॐ वक्रतुण्ड महाकाय सूर्यकोटिसम्स्प्रभः।
निर्विघ्नं कुरु मे देव सर्वकार्येषु सर्वदा ॥
ॐ शुभं कुरुत्वं कल्याणं आरोग्यं धनसंपदः।
शत्रुबुद्धिविनाशाय दीपज्योतिनमोऽस्तु ते ॥
दीपज्योतिः परब्रह्म दीपज्योति जनार्दनः।
दीपो हरतु मे पापं संध्यादीप नमोऽस्तु ते ॥
भो दीप ब्रह्मारूपस्त्वं ज्योतिषां प्रभुरव्ययः।
आरोग्यं देहि पुत्रांश्च मतिं स्वच्छां हि मे सदा ॥
स्वेरस्तं समारभ्य यावत्सूर्योदयो भवेत्।
यस्य तिष्ठेद्गृहे दीपस्तस्य नास्ति दरिद्रता ॥
ॐ गुरुर्ब्रह्मा गुरुर्विष्णुः गुरुर्देवो महेश्वरः।
गुरुः साक्षात् परब्रह्म तस्मै श्रीगुरवे नमः ॥
Sanskrit Shloka is a category of verse line developed from the Vedic Anustubh. It is the basis for Indian epic verse, and may be considered the Indian verse form par excellence, occurring, as it does, far more frequently than any other meter in classical Sanskrit poetry. The Mahabharata and Ramayana, for example, are written almost exclusively in shlokas.
Here are 5 examples of Sanskrit Shlok–
अलसस्य कुतो विद्या, अविद्यस्य कुतो धनम्।
अधनस्य कुतो मित्रम्, अमित्रस्य कुतः सुखम्।।
आलस्यं हि मनुष्याणां शरीरस्थो महान् रिपुः।
नास्त्युद्यमसमो बन्धुः कृत्वा यं नावसीदति।।
यथा ह्येकेन चक्रेण न रथस्य गतिर्भवेत्।
एवं परुषकारेण विना दैवं न सिद्ध्यति।।
बलवानप्यशक्तोऽसौ धनवानपि निर्धनः।
श्रुतवानपि मूर्खोऽसौ यो धर्मविमुखो जनः।।
अष्टादश पुराणेषु व्यासस्य वचनद्वयम्।
परोपकारः पुण्याय पापाय परपीडनम्।।
Sanskrit literature has a rich tradition of body philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, music, drama, scientific, technical and other texts. In ancient times, Sanskrit compositions were transmitted verbally by methods of extraordinary complexity, hardness and loyalty. The first known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the first century B.C., some people searched in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada (Chittorgarh). 1 Century CE was written in Sanskrit texts dated to Brahmi script, N $ gar] script, historical South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts. Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the eighth schedule of the Constitution of India. It is widely used in Hinduism as a formal and ritual language and some Buddhist practices in the form of hymns and mantras.
Mahabharat is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of Ancient India, the second being Ramayana. It describes the conflict between the two groups of cousins in Kurukshetra war and the fate of Kauravas and Puja princes and their succession. With Ramayana, it forms the Hindu Itihasa.
The Bhagavad Gita, often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Sanskrit scripture that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna. At the start of the Dharma Yudhha between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause.
Ramayana is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the second is going to Mahabradha. With majesty, it forms the Hindu Itihasa.
Vedas are a large body of religious texts starting in ancient India. Vedic compositions in Sanskrit, texts form the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest texts of Hindu religion. Hindus consider the Vedas as Apure-e-Aya, which means “No human being, supernatural and personal, unrecorded.
There are four Vedas in all. They are
- Rig-Veda “Knowledge of the Hymns of Praise”, for recitation.
- Sama-Veda “Knowledge of the Melodies”, for chanting.
- Yajur-Veda “Knowledge of the Sacrificial formulas”, for liturgy.
- Atharva-Veda “Knowledge of the Magic formulas”, named after a kind of group of priests.
The word Puranas literally means “ancient, old”, and it is a vast genre of Indian literature about a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore. Composed primarily in Sanskrit, but also in Tamil and other Indian languages, several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Vishnu, Shiva and Devi. The Puranas genre of literature is found in both Hinduism and Jainism.
There are 18 Purana in all. They are-
- Agni– Agni puran has 15,400 verses. A large compilation of diverse topics, it escribes cosmology, the world and nature of life from the perspective of Vishnu.
- Bhagavata– Bhagavata puran has 18,000 verses. The most studied and popular of the Puranas, telling of Vishnu’s Avatars, and of Vaishnavism.
- Brahma– Brahma puran has 10,000 verses. Sometimes also called Adi Purana, because many Mahapuranas lists put it first of 18. The text has 245 chapters, shares many passages with Vishnu, Vayu, Markendeya Puranas, and with the Mahabharata.
- Brahmanda– Brahmanda puran has 12,000 verses. One of the earliest composed Puranas, it contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.
- Brahmavaivarta– Brahmavaivarta puran has 18,000 verses. It is related by Savarni to Narada, and centres around the greatness of Krishna and Radha.
- Garuda– Garuda puran has 19,000 verses. An encyclopedia of diverse topics. Primarily about Vishnu, but praises all gods. Describes how Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma collaborate.
- Kurma– Kurma puran has 17,000 verses. Contains a combination of Vishnu and Shiva related legends, mythology, Tirtha and theology.
- Linga– Linga puran has 11,000 verses. Discusses Lingam, symbol of Shiva, and origin of the universe.
- Markandeya– Markandeya puran has 9,000 verses. Describes Vindhya Range and western India. Probably composed in the valleys of Narmada and Tapti rivers, in Maharashtra and Gujarat.
- Matsya– Matsya puran has 14,000 verses. An encyclopedia of diverse topics. Narrates the story of Matsya, the first of ten major Avatars of Vishnu.
- Narada– Narada puran has 25,000 verses. Also called Naradiya Purana. Discusses the four Vedas and the six Vedangas.
- Padma– Padma puran has 55,000 verses. A large compilation of diverse topics, it escribes cosmology, the world and nature of life from the perspective of Vishnu.
- Shiva– Shiva puran has 24,000 verses. Discusses Shiva, and stories about him.
- Skanda– Skanda puran has 81,100 verses. Describes the birth of Skanda or Karthikeya, son of Shiva.
- Vamana– Vamana puran has 10,000 verses. Describes North India, particularly Himalayan foothills region.
- Varaha– Varaha puran has 55,000 verses. Primarily Vishnu-related worship manual, with large Mahatmya sections or travel guide to Mathura and Nepal.
- Vayu– Vayu puran has 24,000 verses. Possibly the oldest of all Maha Puranas. Some medieval Indian texts call it Vayaviya Purana. Mentioned and studied by Al Biruni, the 11th century Persian visitor to India. Praises Shiva.
- Vishnu– Vishnu puran has 23,000 verses. One of the most studied and circulated Puranas, it also contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.
The Upanishads, a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism. Among the most important literature in the history of Indian religions and culture, the Upanishads played an important role in the development of spiritual ideas in ancient India, marking a transition from Vedic ritualism to new ideas and institutions. Of all Vedic literature, the Upanishads alone are widely known, and their central ideas are at the spiritual core of Hindus. There are 108 Upanishads in all.
Most of the Indian languages have been derived from Sanskrit. For this reason, Sanskrit names tend to work well no matter where you live in India.Sanskrit names for boy baby, ancient hindu boy names, sanskrit name meaning, You will find rare, uncommon, religious and traditional names here Indian baby names.
Baby girl names in Sanskrit
Baby girls are sweet in so many ways, and they have the gorgeous girls names to prove it! Choosing a baby girl sanskrit name is a fun thing to do when you’re pregnant. It can also be one of the hardest things to do. There are so many beauties, you might have a hard time narrowing it down to just one. But don’t worry, you’ll get there!
Sanskrit baby boy names
Baby boy are sweet in so many ways, and they have the gorgeous boy names to prove it! Choosing a baby boy sanskrit name is a fun thing to do when you’re pregnant. It can also be one of the hardest things to do. There are so many beauties, you might have a hard time narrowing it down to just one. But don’t worry, you’ll get there!