Conjunction – Meaning, Definition, Types, Usage and Examples


Did you know that little words can make a big impact on how we talk and write? Conjunctions are like special connectors that help us join ideas together. In this post of English Grammar, we’ll learn more about conjunctions and how they help us communicate better.

Meaning and Definition of Conjunction

Conjunction वह शब्द या शब्द समूह है जो दो या दो से अधिक शब्दों (Words), शब्द समूहों (Phrases), वाक्यांशों (Clauses) तथा वाक्यों (Sentences) को जोड़ता है। यह Part of Speech के आठ भेदों में से एक है।

A Conjunction is a word used to join two words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

For Example:

  • Rama and Hari are friends. (“and”, Rama और Hari दो शब्दों को जोड़ता है।)
  • People’s ignorance and population explosion are two inter-related problems. (“and”, People’s ignorance और population explosion दो phrases को जोड़ता है)
  • She said that she would come. (“that”, She said और she would come दो Clauses को जोड़ता है।)
  • Mohan ran fast but he missed the train. (“but”, ‘Mohan ran fast’ और ‘He missed the train’ को जोड़ता है।)
  • Two and two make four. (“and” द्वारा दो शब्द Two और two जोड़े गये हैं।)

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में and, but, that संयोजक (Conjunction) हैं।

Some Common Conjunctions

कुछ सामान्य Conjunctions और उनका Meaning हिन्दी में निम्नलिखित है:-

# Some Common Conjunctions Meaning in Hindi
1. And और
2. As well as साथ ही साथ
3. Otherwise, or else नहीं तो
4. So, hence इसीलिए
5. Therefore, Consequently अतः इसलिए
6. Either………..or या तो……..या
7. Neither……….nor न तो…….न
8. Both…. and दोनों……..और
9. So…….that इतना…….कि
10. Too…… इतना………..कि
11. So…… इतना……जितना
12. As…….as इतना………..जितना
13. Whether………or या………..या
14. As…….so जैसा……….वैसा
15. As soon as जैसे ही………वैसे ही
16. But पर, परन्तु, लेकिन,
17. Or………… या, अथवा, नहीं तो
18. No sooner………..than जैसे ही……..वैसे ही
19. Not only………but also न ही सिर्फ……….बल्कि
20. Scarcely………when मुश्किल से……..कि
21. Wherever जहाँ कहीं भी
22. Hardly………when मुश्किल से………..कि
23. Whenever जब कभी भी
24. Where जहाँ
25. While के दौरान
26. When जब
27. As…., क्योंकि…….इसलिए
28. Until/Unless…., तब तक……..जब तक
29. Such…….that इतना……..कि
30. Because क्योंकि
31. Provided वशर्ते
32. Lest……should ऐसा न हो कि, वर्ना,
33. Though यद्यपि…….फिर भी/तथापि
34. If यदि
35. Whereas जबकि
36. As If मानो……..कि
37. As though मानो
38. Although यद्यपि……..फिर भी/तथापि
39. Nevertheless, In spite of के बावजूद
40. As far as जहां तक


Conjunctions (संयोजक) निम्नलिखित दो प्रकार के होते हैं-

  1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions (समानपदीय संयोजक)
  2. Subordinating Conjunctions (आश्रित संयोजक) ।


समानपदीय संयोजक (Co-ordinating Conjunction) वह संयोजक होता है जिसके द्वारा समान पद वाले शब्द या वाक्य आपस में एक-दूसरे से जोड़े जाते हैं, जैसे-

  • Two and two make four.
  • Kailash and Gopal are friends.
  • He passed but his sister failed.
  • Mohan came here but Sushil went away.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में and द्वारा दो शब्दों को जोड़ा गया है, जबकि but द्वारा दो वाक्यों को जोड़ा गया है।


समानपदीय संयोजक निम्न प्रकार के होते हैं-

  1. Cumulative Conjunction (संयुक्त संयोजक)
  2. Adversative Conjunction (विरोधदर्शक संयोजक)
  3. Alternative Conjunction (वैकल्पिक संयोजक)
  4. Illative Conjunction (परिणामसूचक संयोजक)

Cumulative Conjunction

संयुक्त संयोजक (Cumulative Conjunction) वह संयोजक होता है जिससे एक कथन को दूसरे कथन से मिलाया जाता है; जैसे-

  1. She came here and did her work. (She came here और (She) did her work को and द्वारा जोड़ा गया है।)
  2. I went to Agra and saw the Taj.
  3. We opened our books and began to read.
  4. God made the country and man made the town.
  5. Birds fly and fish swim.

List of Common Cumulative Conjunctions:

  1. And
  2. Also
  3. Both…and
  4. As well as
  5. Now
  6. Too
  7. No less than
  8. Furthermore
  9. Moreover
  10. Additionally
  11. Besides
  12. In addition
  13. Likewise
  14. Similarly
  15. As well

Adversative Conjunction

विरोधदर्शक संयोजक (Adversative Conjunction) वह संयोजक होता है जिसके द्वारा दो विरोधी (Opposite) कथनों को एक-दूसरे से मिलाया जाता है; जैसे-

  1. He is slow but he is sure.
  2. He is intelligent but he is not diligent.
  3. I was angry, still I kept quiet.

इन वाक्यों में but और still का प्रयोग दो विरोधी कथनों को संयुक्त करने के लिए हुआ है। अतः but और still- Adversative Conjunctions हैं।

List of Common Adversative Conjunctions:

  1. Buy
  2. Yet
  3. Still
  4. Only
  5. However
  6. Nevertheless
  7. While
  8. Whereas
  9. On the other hand
  10. Conversely
  11. In contrast
  12. Despite

Alternative Conjunction

वैकल्पिक संयोजक (Alternative Conjunction) द्वारा दो वैकल्पिक कथनों को एक-दूसरे से संयुक्त किया जाता है, इन विकल्पों में से केवल एक ही चुना जाना होता है; जैसे-

  1. She must weep or she must die,
  2. Walk quickly else you will miss the train.
  3. Make haste otherwise you will be late.
  4. Either come with me or go to library.
  5. Either sit silently or leave the room.

पहले वाक्य में निम्नलिखित दो विकल्प हैं- (i) She must weep, (ii) She must die.

दूसरे वाक्य में निम्नलिखित दो विकल्प हैं- (i) Walk quickly, (ii) You will miss the train.

List of Common Alternative Conjunctions:

  1. Either…or
  2. Neither…nor
  3. Or
  4. Whether…or
  5. Rather…or
  6. Else
  7. Instead
  8. Otherwise
  9. Not…but
  10. Not only…but also

Illative Conjunction

इस Conjunction द्वारा दो ऐसे वाक्यों को आपस में मिलाया जाता है जिनमें से एक वाक्य दूसरे वाक्य का परिणाम (Result) होता है; जैसे-

  1. Something fell in; for I heard a splash.
  2. All precautions must have been neglected; for the cholera spread.
  3. There must be someone at the door; for I hear a knock.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में से प्रत्येक में दो वाक्य हैं। दूसरा वाक्य पहले वाक्य से for द्वारा जुड़ा हुआ है। for का प्रयोग Illative Conjunction की तरह हुआ है।

List of Common Illative Conjunctions:

  1. For,
  2. So,
  3. Thus,
  4. Consequently,
  5. Hence,
  6. Accordingly,
  7. As a result.


आश्रित संयोजक (Subordinating Conjunction) वह संयोजक होता है जो आश्रित उपवाक्य (Subordinate clause) को दूसरे उपवाक्य (Clause) से मिलाता है; जैसे-

  • When father came, I was reading a book. = I was reading a book when father came.
  • If you work hard, you will pass. = You will pass if you work hard.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में गहरे रंग के शब्दों से आश्रित उपवाक्य प्रकट होते हैं। Subordinate Clause का प्रथम शब्द (When, if ) Subordinating Conjunction होता है।

List of Common Subordinating conjunctions:

  1. After
  2. because
  3. if
  4. that
  5. though
  6. although
  7. while
  8. how
  9. until
  10. till
  11. before
  12. unless
  13. as
  14. when
  15. where
  16. since
  17. than

Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions:

  1. He slept after he had finished the work.
  2. He passed because he worked hard.
  3. I shall help you if you come to me.
  4. He said that honesty is the best policy.
  5. Though he was ill, he passed.
  6. Although you are rich, you are not proud.
  7. Wait till father comes.
  8. He had finished his work before he slept.
  9. Unless you work harder, you will not pass.
  10. Do as I tell you.
  11. When he came, I was sleeping.
  12. Stay where you are.
  13. Since he was not there, I spoke to his father.
  14. The earth is larger than the moon.
  15. Make hay while the sun shines.
  16. I do not know how it happened.
  17. I will stay here until you return.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में- after, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, as, when, where, since, than, while, how, until-  Subordinating Conjunctions (आश्रित संयोजक) हैं।

  • Since, as, because का प्रयोग कारण प्रकट करने के लिए हुआ है।
  • Till, until समयसूचक शब्द हैं। Till-Positive है और Until—Negative है।
  • Unless से शर्त प्रकट होती है। यह Negative है। (Unless = if not)
  • When और while समयसूचक शब्द हैं।
  • Though/Although समान अर्थ प्रकट करते हैं। दोनों का अर्थ है-यद्यपि ।


Subordinating Conjunctions का प्रयोग Time, Cause or Reason, Purpose, Consequence, Condition, Comparison, Concession, Manner आदि प्रकट करने के लिए होता है। जैसे-

Time (समय):

  1. I was reading a book when he came.
  2. He had gone before you came.
  3. He went away after you had slept.
  4. Wait till mother cooks food.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में when, before, afier और till द्वारा समय (Time) ज्ञात हो रहा है।

Cause or Reason (कारण):

  1. She got good marks because she worked hard.
  2. The child is crying because he is hungry.
  3. He failed as he was careless.
  4. As you were asleep, I did not disturb you.
  5. Since you are here, I shall help you.
  6. Since I get a small salary, I cannot afford a scooter.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में because, as और since का प्रयोग Cause या Reason (कारण) प्रकट कर रहा है।

Purpose (उद्देश्य) :

  1. He goes into the room that (so that) he may write a letter.
  2. He went into the room that (so that) he might write a letter.
  3. We eat that (so that) we may live.
  4. He lives that (so that) he may eat.
  5. Walk carefully lest you should fall down.
  6. He held my hand lest I should fall.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में- that और lest का प्रयोग उद्देश्य (Purpose) प्रकट करता है।

  • That का प्रयोग ताकि (so that) के अर्थ में होता है।
  • Lest निषेधात्मक है। Lest का अर्थ है-कहीं ऐसा न हो।
  • Lest के पश्चात should का
  • प्रयोग सहायक क्रिया (Helping verb) के रूप में होता है।
  • Lest के पश्चात Not नहीं लगाना चाहिए क्योंकि Lest स्वयं ही निषेधात्मक भाव प्रकट करता है।

Result or Consequence (परिणाम) :

  1. I am so old that I cannot work hard.
  2. I was so tired that I could not work.
  3. He is so poor that he cannot buy books.
  4. She was so ill that she could not go to school.
  5. You are so poor that you cannot pay your fee.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में that का प्रयोग परिणाम (Result or Consequence) प्रकट करने के लिए हुआ है।

Condition (शर्त) :

  1. You will pass if you work hard.
  2. If you come to me, I shall help you.
  3. He will go if you accompany him.
  4. I will not come unless I am invited.
  5. You will not get your admission unless you return all the books of the library.
  6. Unless you tell the truth, you will be punished.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में if और unless द्वारा शर्त (Condition) प्रकट हो रही है अतः if और unless दोनों ही Subordinating Conjunction हैं। If- Positive है जबकि Unless- Negative है। Unless का अर्थ है- If not.

Comparison ( तुलना) :

  1. Rama is fatter than Mohan (is).
  2. I am stronger than you (are)..
  3. The fox was cleverer than the crow.
  4. We speak faster than we write.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में than द्वारा तुलना (Comparison) प्रकट हो रही है अतः than का प्रयोग Subordinating Conjunction of Comparison की तरह हुआ है।

He is fatter than I. और He is fatter than me. ये दोनों वाक्य शुद्ध हैं। Modern English में दूसरा वाक्य अधिक प्रचलित है।

Concession (रिआयत या छूट) :

  1. Although he worked hard, he failed.
  2. Though he did not read at all, he passed.
  3. Though he is poor, yet he is happy.
  4. Although I was tired, yet I kept working.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में although/though का प्रयोग Concession प्रकट करने के लिए हुआ है। ‘Though’ Although का संक्षिप्त रूप है।

Although, Though के साथ दूसरे वाक्य में Yet का प्रयोग Modern English में नहीं किया जाता है।

  • Although/Though you are poor, you are happy. (Correct)
  • Although/Though you are poor, yet you are happy. (Correct)
  • Although/Though you are poor, but you are happy. (Incorrect)

Although और Though के साथ But का प्रयोग करना सही नहीं है। इन शब्दों के साथ दूसरे Clause में Yet का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है। (विद्यार्थी Yet का प्रयोग करना चाहें तो करें और न करना चाहें तो न करें।)

Manner (रीति या विधि) :

  1. He may do as he likes.
  2. She did as she was asked.
  3. You may do as you please.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में As द्वारा कार्य करने की विधि पर प्रकाश डाला गया है, अतः as का प्रयोग Subordinating Conjunction की तरह Manner दर्शाने के लिए हुआ है।

As से Noun Clause कभी नहीं बनती है।


Conjunctions जब शब्दों के समूहों के रूप में प्रयुक्त हों तब वे Compound Conjunction कहलाते है। जैसे- In order that, On condition that, As though, As well as, As soon as, आदि।

For Example:

  1. In order that: The announcement was made in order that all might know the new date of exam.
  2. On condition that: I will give you money on condition that you will not misuse it.
  3. Even if: She will succeed in life even if she faces some initial failures.
  4. So that: We eat so that we may live.
  5. Provided that: You can take any dress provided that you return it after the party.
  6. As though: He shows off as though he is very rich.
  7. As well as: Ram as well as his friends has come to the party.
  8. As soon as: The farmers will sow the seeds as soon as it rains.
  9. As if: He scolded me as if he were my father.


जो Conjunctions जोड़े (pair) में प्रयुक्त होते हैं, उन्हें Correlatives (संकेतवाचक) कहते हैं। जैसे- ‘Either………..or’, ‘Neither……….nor’, ‘Both…. and’, ‘So…….that’, ‘Too……’, ‘So……’, ‘As…….as’, ‘Whether………or’, ‘As…….so’, ‘No sooner………..than’, ‘Not only………but also’, ‘Scarcely………when’, ‘Hardly………when’, ‘Such…….that’, ‘Lest……should’, ‘Although/Though….Yet/,’.

For Example:

  1. Neither his friends nor his parents knew about his evil intention.
  2. I do not know whether he will come or not.


कुछ संयोजकों (Conjunctions) का प्रयोग ‘जोड़ों में’ (in pairs) में होता है। ये निम्नलिखित हैं-

  1. Either….or (या तो…या)
    • Either you can have chocolate ice cream or vanilla ice cream.
    • We can either go to the park or stay at home.
  2. Neither…nor (न तो…न)
    • Neither Sarah nor James could attend the party.
    • The movie was neither interesting nor exciting.
  3. Both…and (दोनों…और)
    • She is both smart and kind.
    • We have both apples and oranges.
  4. So…that (इतना…कि)
    • It was raining so heavily that we couldn’t go outside.
    • He ran so fast that he won the race.
  5. Too…to (इतना…कि)
    • The box was too heavy for me to lift.
    • She is too tired to go to the party.
  6. So…as (इतना…जितना)
    • He is not as tall as his brother.
    • She is not as fast as her friend.
  7. As…as (इतना…जितना)
    • The cat is as cute as the kitten.
    • He is as good at math as his sister.
  8. Whether…or (या…या)
    • I don’t know whether to choose pizza or pasta for dinner.
    • We can go to the beach whether it’s sunny or cloudy.
  9. As…so (जैसा…वैसा)
    • As he worked hard, so did his grades improve.
    • She sings beautifully, as does her sister.
  10. No sooner…than (जैसे ही…वैसे ही)
    • No sooner did he arrive home than it started raining.
    • No sooner had she finished cooking than the guests arrived.
  11. Not only…but also (न ही सिर्फ…बल्कि)
    • She is not only intelligent but also talented.
    • The book is not only interesting but also informative.
  12. Scarcely…when (मुश्किल से……..कि)
    • Scarcely had he started reading the book when he fell asleep.
    • Scarcely had they left the house when it started snowing.
  13. Hardly…when (मुश्किल से…कि)
    • Hardly had she begun to speak when the phone rang.
    • They had hardly reached the cinema when it started to pour.
  14. Such…that (इतना…कि)
    • It was such a hot day that we went swimming.
    • The cake was such a delicious treat that everyone wanted seconds.
  15. Lest…should (ऐसा न हो कि, वर्ना,)
    • He studied hard lest he should fail the exam.
    • She locked the door lest someone should enter without permission.
  16. Although/ Though…Yet/,(यद्यपि…फिर भी/तथापि)
    • Although it was raining, we went for a walk.
    • Though he was tired, he still went to the gym.

Use of ‘As soon as’, ‘As well as’, ‘As if’ and ‘Even if

As soon as, As well as और As if के प्रयोग के लिए निम्नलिखित वर्णन पर ध्यान दीजिए-

  1. As soon as he heard the news, he wrote to me.

    No sooner did he hear the news than he wrote to me.
  2. Rama as well as his brother passed.
  3. You as well as I are innocent.
  4. He looks as if he were weary.
  5. I will go there even if it rains.


  1. As soon as और No Sooner…than दोनों के प्रयोग को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़िए। As soon as- Positive है और No sooner…than—Negative है।
  2. No sooner के साथ Than का प्रयोग होता है।
  3. As soon as से Adverb Clause बनती है। इस Adverb Clause के पश्चात Principal Clause आती है और Principal Clause से पहले अल्पविराम (कौमा) लगता है।
  4. No sooner से Principal Clause बनती है। No sooner वाला उपवाक्य प्रश्नवाचक के रूप में बनाते हैं किन्तु वाक्य के अन्त में प्रश्नवाचक का चिन्ह (?) नहीं लगाते हैं।
  5. Than से Adverb Clause आरम्भ होती है।
  6. As well as के प्रयोग में Verb- As well as से पहले वाले Subject के अनुसार आती है। (वाक्य 2, 3)
  7. As if का अर्थ है- मानो (जैसे कि)। As if के बाद में He के साथ were का प्रयोग होता है। Were का हिन्दी अर्थ – इस प्रकार के प्रयोग में ‘है‘ होता है।
  8. Even if का अर्थ है-यद्यपि।

Test Yourself

Point out the Conjunctions in the following sentences and state whether they are Co-ordinating or Subordinating :

  1. Mukesh and Mahesh are brothers.
  2. She arrived after her mother had gone out.
  3. I waited till the train arrived.
  4. Do not go before I return.
  5. He cannot give you any money, for she has none.
  6. He was sorry because you did not help him.
  7. He is richer than his elder brother.
  8. Catch me if you can.
  9. Is that story true or false?
  10. If I feel any doubt, I ask.
  11. We can travel by land or water.
  12. The sun is bigger than the earth.
  13. I hear that your brother is in Gorakhpur.
  14. He may enter as he is a friend.
  15. We eat that we may live.

In Summary, Conjunctions are small words that connect words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. They help us express relationships, add information, and create coherence in our language. By using conjunctions, we can make our writing and speaking more organized and effective.

Frequently Asked Questions on Conjunctions in English Grammar

What are conjunctions?

Conjunctions are small words that join words, phrases, or clauses together in a sentence.

What is the purpose of using conjunctions?

Conjunctions help us connect ideas, show relationships between words or sentences, and make our writing or speaking more coherent.

How many types of conjunctions are there?

There are three main types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions.

What are coordinating conjunctions?

Coordinating conjunctions, such as “and,” “but,” and “or,” connect words, phrases, or independent clauses of equal importance.

What are subordinating conjunctions?

Subordinating conjunctions, like “although,” “because,” and “while,” connect independent and dependent clauses, indicating a dependent relationship between them.

What are correlative conjunctions?

Correlative conjunctions come in pairs, such as “either…or,” “neither…nor,” and “both…and,” and they work together to connect similar sentence elements.

Can you give some examples of conjunctions?

Sure! Examples of conjunctions include “and,” “but,” “or,” “because,” “if,” “although,” “either…or,” “neither…nor,” and many more.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *