In English Grammar, there are over 100 prepositions that help us structure sentences. Some commonly used ones are “in,” “at,” “on,” “under,” “beside,” and “between.” This post will teach you about prepositions, their rules, types, and meanings. We’ll use examples to help you understand how prepositions work in sentences. So, let’s get started learning the prepositions.
What is Preposition?
Preposition (सम्बन्धसूचक शब्द) वह शब्द है जो किसी Noun या Pronoun के साथ प्रयोग में आकर उस Noun या Pronoun द्वारा सूचित व्यक्ति, स्थान या वस्तु का सम्बन्ध अन्य किसी Noun या Pronoun से प्रदर्शित करता है।
A Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person, place or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else.
The term “preposition” originated from Latin and it refers to a specific part of speech in grammar. It comes from the Latin words “prae” meaning “before” and “positio” meaning “placement” or “position.”
Examples of Preposition:
- There is a parrot in the garden.
- The girl is fond of songs.
- A little boy sat under a tree.
इन वाक्यों में in, of, under का प्रयोग Preposition की तरह हुआ है।
नोट: Preposition का प्रयोग Noun या Pronoun के पहले या साथ में नहीं भी हो सकता है। जैसे-
- Who was he talking to?
- He does not have a pen to write with.
Commonly Used Prepositions:
प्रायः प्रयोग में आने वाले मुख्य Prepositions निम्न हैं- In, on, at, of, with, by, from, to, into, off, out, till, for, up आदि।
Kinds of Prepositions
Prepositions तीन प्रकार के होते हैं-
- Simple Preposition
- Compound Preposition
- Phrase Preposition (Complex Preposition)
मुख्य Simple Prepositions निम्नलिखित हैं- In, on, at, to, from, with, by आदि।
Simple prepositions are single-word prepositions that establish a relationship between two parts of a sentence.
- In: The cat is in the box.
- On: The book is on the table.
- At: They are waiting at the park.
- To: She is going to school.
- Of: A cup of tea is on the table.
- From: I received a gift from my friend.
- With: He is playing with his toy car.
- By: The painting was done by an artist.
- Up: The balloon floated up into the sky.
- Down: The ball rolled down the hill.
- Through: The bird flew through the open window.
- Under: The cat is hiding under the bed.
- Out: The dog ran out of the house.
- Near: The store is near the park.
मुख्य Compound Prepositions निम्नलिखित हैं- About, across, among, between, beside, before आदि ।
- About (के बारे में) : I heard a lot of rumors about the new movie.
- Among (के बीच) : The kids played happily among the colorful flowers in the garden.
- Amongst (बीच में) : She found her lost key amongst the pile of books on her desk.
- Amid (के बीच) : The birds chirped amidst the tranquil forest.
- Amidst (बीच में) : They continued their march amidst the pouring rain.
- Against (ख़िलाफ़) : The team fought against their formidable opponents in the championship game.
- Above (ऊपर) : The bird soared above the treetops, enjoying the view.
- Towards (की ओर) : He walked towards the park, eager to enjoy the fresh air.
- Across (आर-पार) : She swam across the lake to reach the other side.
- Along (साथ में) : We strolled along the sandy beach, feeling the warmth of the sun.
- Around (आस-पास) : The children ran around the playground, laughing and playing.
- Behind (पीछे) : He hid behind the tree to surprise his friends.
- Below (नीचे) : The treasure was buried below the old oak tree.
- Before (पहले) : They arrived before the scheduled time for the meeting.
- Beside (के बगल में) : The cat sat beside me, purring softly.
- Beneath (के नीचे) : The submarine explored the mysterious depths beneath the ocean’s surface.
- Between (बीच में) : The bridge connects the two cities, providing a link between them.
- Beyond (आगे) : They dreamed of adventures beyond their wildest imaginations.
- Inside (अंदर) : We had a cozy picnic inside the cabin during the rainstorm.
- Outside (बाहर) : The dog barked at the squirrel outside the window.
- Underneath (नीचे) : The hidden treasure was buried underneath the old house.
मुख्य Phrase Prepositions निम्नलिखित हैं- According to, in spite of, on account of, in front of, in order to, for the sake of, by means of, with reference to, in addition to, due to आदि ।
Phrase prepositions, also known as complex prepositions, are prepositional phrases that consist of two or more words.
- According to (अनुसार) : He acted according to my desire. (उसने मेरी इच्छा के अनुसार कार्य किया।)
- Because of (कारण) : He left the field because of fear. ( उसने भय के कारण मैदान छोड़ दिया।)
- By means of (द्वारा) : By means of rope he reached the roof of the house., (रस्सी के द्वारा वह मकान की छत पर पहुँच गया।)
- Due to (कारण) : He fell ill due to overwork. (अधिक कार्य करने के कारण वह बीमार हो गया।)
- For the sake of (लिए) : I suffered much for the sake of my brother. (अपने भाई के लिए मुझे बहुत कष्ट उठाना पड़ा।)
- In addition to (के अतिरित, अधिकतर) : In addition to studying, I also enjoy playing. (पढ़ने के अलावा मुझे खेलने में भी मजा आता है।)
- In case of (दशा में) : In case of need, please come to me. (आवश्यकता पड़ने पर कृपया मेरे पास आ जाइये ।)
- In front of (सामने) : Dauji Temple is in front of my house. (दाऊ जी का मन्दिर मेरे घर के सामने है।)
- In order to (लिए) : He shut the door in order to take rest. (विश्राम लेने के लिए उसने द्वार बन्द कर दिया।)
- In spite of (होते हुए, बावजूद) : In spite of being ill, Mr. Ojha did the work. (बीमार होते हुए भी ओझा जी ने कार्य किया था ।)
- Instead of (स्थान पर, बजाय) : Instead of a novel he read the Ramayana. (उपन्यास के स्थान पर उसने रामायण पढ़ी।)
- On account of (कारण) : On account of hard work he passed. (कठिन परिश्रम के कारण वह सफल हुआ।)
- On behalf of (ओर से) : On behalf of his brother he paid the rent. (अपने भाई की ओर से उसने किराया चुका दिया।)
- Owing to (कारण) : Owing to ill health, he retired from business. (खराब स्वास्थ्य के कारण उसने व्यापार से अवकाश ग्रहण कर लिया।)
- With reference to (संदर्भ में) : With reference to your letter please note my terms. (अपने पत्र के संदर्भ में कृपया मेरी शर्तों पर ध्यान दीजिए।)
Double Preposition दो Preposition के संयोग से बनता है, जो prepositional phrase बनाते हैं। इसलिए इन्हें phrase preposition भी कहते हैं। मुख्य Double Prepositions निम्नलिखित हैं- Into, upon, onto, throughout, inside, without, & within.
A double preposition is formed when two prepositions combine to create a new prepositional phrase. So these types of prepositions can be called phrase prepositions.
- Into (में) : He walked into the room and closed the door behind him.
- Inside (अंदर) : She hid inside the closet, hoping not to be found.
- Throughout (लगातार) : The music played throughout the night, filling the air with melodies.
- Up to (तक) : They walked up to the edge of the cliff, cautiously peering down below.
- Upon (ऊपर) : Upon hearing the news, she immediately called her best friend.
- Within (अंदर) : The treasure is hidden within the depths of the cave.
- Without (बिना) : He managed to complete the task without any assistance.
- According to (के अनुसार) : According to the weather forecast, it will be sunny tomorrow.
- As about (के रूप में) : As about the question you asked earlier, I’m not sure of the answer.
- As above (ऊपरोक्त अनुसार) : As above, the instructions are clearly outlined in the manual.
- As after (जैसा बाद में) : She left the party early, as after midnight it started to get too loud.
- As outside (बाहर के रूप में) : She enjoyed the fresh air as outside the house, the birds chirped merrily.
- At about (लगभग) : He arrived at the party at about 8 PM, right on time.
- At around (आसपास में) : The meeting is scheduled to start at around 10 o’clock.
- Because of (की वजह से) : The game was canceled because of the heavy rain.
- From above (उपर से) : The helicopter flew down from above, providing a breathtaking view of the landscape.
- From behind (पीछे से) : He emerged from behind the curtain, surprising everyone in the audience.
- From under (तहत से) : The cat crawled out from under the bed, chasing a toy mouse.
- From within (भीतर से) : From within the crowd, a voice shouted in excitement.
- Next to (के पास) : The bench is placed next to the fountain in the park.
- Off on (बंद चालू) : He waved goodbye as he drove off on his road trip.
- Off to (के लिए रवाना) : They set off to explore the unknown, embarking on a grand adventure.
- Onto (पर) : The cat jumped onto the table, knocking over a glass.
- Out of (से बाहर) : She climbed out of the window, escaping from the locked room.
- Outside of (के बाहर) : They enjoyed their time outside of the city, surrounded by nature’s beauty.
- Over from (से अधिक) : He traveled over from the neighboring town to attend the event.
- Over to (खत्म करने के लिए) : She walked over to him and stood up against the wall.
Participle Preposition क्रिया के से मिलकर बने होते हैं, इनमें verb और preposition दोनों के गुण होते हैं। Participle preposition के अंत में -ed और -ing आदि अक्षर होते हैं।.
Participle prepositions are a type of preposition that are formed by using a participle (a verb form) followed by a preposition. They function as a single unit and have both verb and prepositional characteristics. Participle prepositions have endings such as -ed and -ing.
जैसे– concerning, regarding, excluding, and frustrated, given.
- Concerning your question, I will provide you with more information.
- Regarding the incident, the police are conducting a thorough investigation.
- Excluding weekends, the office is open from Monday to Friday.
- Sita was frustrated at the situation.
- Dinner is provided at no extra charge.
- Given his age, he couldn’t participate in the race.
नोट: Prepositions का कोई निश्चित वर्गीकरण नहीं है, अतः कई Prepositions को Simple, Compound, Phrase या किसी अन्य Preposition के अंतर्गत भी रखा जा सकता है। जैसे- Near को किसी पुस्तक में Compound में, तो किसी में Simple Preposition बताया गया है। कुछ पुस्तकों में Phrasal Prepositions को Compound में और Compound को Simple Preposition बताया गया है।
Rules to Use Prepositions (How to use Prepositions?)
निम्नलिखित Prepositions के शुद्ध प्रयोगों को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़िए-
In and After का प्रयोग :
In का प्रयोग भविष्य (Future) काल की अवधि बताने के लिए किया जाता है जबकि After से ज्ञात होता है कि कार्य कितने समय के बाद पूरा होगा; जैसे-
- I shall do the work in a week.
- I shall do the work after a week.
In and At का प्रयोग :
At का प्रयोग छोटे स्थानों के लिए किया जाता है जबकि In का प्रयोग बड़े नगरों तथा देश के लिए होता है; जैसे-
- I passed my time at Khair in District Aligarh.
Behind and After का प्रयोग :
Behind स्थानसूचक है जबकि After समयसूचक है; जैसे-
- He hid himself behind a tree.
- My house is behind a temple.
- After two hours he went home.
- He left work after the teacher had gone.
By, with and From का प्रयोग :
By और With से ‘कार्य करने वाले’ और ‘द्वारा’ का भाव प्रकट होता है जबकि From से ‘पृथकत्व’ प्रकट होता है; जैसे-
- The hunter killed the lion with a sword.
- He was killed by the robber with an axe.
- He came here by the Kalka Mail.
- The apple fell from the tree.
Beside and Besides का प्रयोग :
Beside का अर्थ है- by the side of (निकट), जबकि Besides का अर्थ है- in addition to (अतिरिक्त); जैसे-
- Come and sit beside me.
- Mother was sitting beside my sister.
- Besides a pen Mohan bought a book.
- Besides being fined the thief was sent to jail.
By and Till का प्रयोग :
By का प्रयोग निश्चित समय के लिए किया जाता है जबकि Till का प्रयोग अनिश्चित समय के लिए होता है; जैसे-
- He will come by 2 a.m.
- I shall wait till father comes.
Since and For का प्रयोग :
Since और For का प्रयोग समय बताने के लिए Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous तथा Past Perfect Continuous Tense में किया जाता है जबकि Future Perfect Continuous Tense में केवल For का प्रयोग होता है, Since का नहीं। Since का प्रयोग निश्चित समय (Point of Time) तथा For का प्रयोग अनिश्चित समय (Period of Time) प्रकट करने के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे-
- He has been ill for two days.
- He has been ill since Monday last.
- have been playing cricket for two hours.
- I have been playing cricket since two o’clock.
- He had been playing cricket for three hours.
- He had been playing cricket since three o’clock.
- You will have been playing cricket for four hours.
संकेत– Future Perfect Continuous में Since का प्रयोग नहीं होता है।
On and Upon का प्रयोग :
On का प्रयोग प्रायः ‘स्थिर’ (at rest) वस्तुओं के साथ किया जाता है जबकि Upon का प्रयोग ‘गतिशील’ (in motion) वस्तुओं तथा जानवरों के साथ होता है; जैसे-
- He sat on a chair. (स्थिर)
- The cat sprang upon the table. (गतिशील)
To and Into का प्रयोग :
To का प्रयोग ‘सामान्य गति को स्पष्ट करता है जबकि Into का प्रयोग ‘उछलकर, कूदकर, रेंगकर’ (तेजी से – अचानक) के भाव को स्पष्ट करने के लिए किया जाता है; जैसे-
- He went to school.
- She travelled to England.
- He went into the room.
- He fell into the river.
- The axe fell into the river.
- The snake crawled into the hole.
Till and To का प्रयोग :
Till का प्रयोग ‘समय’ प्रकट करने के लिए किया जाता है जबकि To का प्रयोग ‘स्थान’ प्रकट करने के लिए होता है; जैसे-
- I slept till eight o’clock.
- They waited till sunset.
- She slept till dawn.
- He walked to the end of the road.
Between, Among and Amongst का प्रयोग :
Between का प्रयोग ‘दो व्यक्ति या वस्तुओं के लिए, Among का प्रयोग ‘दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के लिए जबकि Amongst का प्रयोग ‘बहुत अधिक वस्तुओं या व्यक्तियों के लिए होता है; जैसे-
- The apple was divided between Mahesh and Mukesh.
- Two apples were divided among Mahesh, Ramesh and Mukesh.
- These twenty apples will be divided amongst ten boys.
From का प्रयोग :
From के दो प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हैं-
- From का अर्थ ‘से’ है। यह ‘पृथकत्व‘ (Separation) प्रकट करता है।
- From का दूसरा प्रयोग ‘निश्चित समय‘ (Point of Time) प्रकट करता है।
इस रूप में इसका प्रयोग किसी भी Tense में हो सकता है; जैसे-
- He came from Agra. (Separation)
- I shall begin my work from today.
- I have begun the work from today.
- I began the work from yesterday.
In English grammar, a preposition is used to establish a relationship between its object and other words in a sentence. The preposition typically comes before the noun, pronoun, or noun phrase that functions as its object.
- She walked to the store. (The preposition “to” is followed by the noun “store.”)
- He sat on the chair. (The preposition “on” is followed by the noun “chair.”)
- The cat is hiding under the table. (The preposition “under” is followed by the noun “table.”)
निम्न उदाहरणों को देखिए-
- The book is on the table.
- He came here with me yesterday.
पहले वाक्य में ‘is‘ क्रिया है और The book इसका Subject है। ‘on‘ Preposition है। ‘table‘ Noun है और इसका Objective Case है। table का सम्बन्ध on-Preposition से है। table- on द्वारा book से सम्बन्धित है।
दूसरे वाक्य में क्रिया ‘came‘ है और इसका Subject- He है। with– Preposition है और Object- me है जो कि Personal Pronoun है।
उपर्युक्त विवेचन से स्पष्ट है कि Preposition के बाद में प्रयुक्त Noun या Pronoun Preposition का Object होता है।
नोट– Transitive Verb और Preposition के साथ इनके Objects आते हैं।
Preposition वाक्य के आरम्भ, मध्य और अन्त में कहीं भी आ सकता है; जैसे-
- I have done it for you.
- Besides Mohan and Sohan, there were three other boys present.
- Here is the watch that you asked for.
- That is the boy whom I was speaking of.
- What are you looking at?
- What are you thinking of?
- Which of these chairs did you sit on?
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में for, besides, for, of, at, of, on- Prepositions हैं। इनका प्रयोग सम्बन्धित वाक्यों के अन्त में हुआ है।
Relationship of Prepositions
Preposition द्वारा निम्न प्रकार के सम्बन्ध प्रकट किये जाते हैं-
Relationship in Time :
कुछ Preposition समयसूचक होते हैं; जैसे-
- Mohan came here at 7 a.m.
- Sarla gets up at 5 o’clock in the morning.
- Father works in the office from 10 to 4.
- There are twelve months in a year.
- I will complete my work before Sunday.
इन वाक्यों में at, at, from, in, before के प्रयोग द्वारा समय व्यक्त किया गया है।
Relationship in Space :
कुछ Preposition स्थानसूचक होते हैं; जैसे-
- Mira was in her room.
- The dog is sitting at the gate.
- Binni is coming from school.
- Put the book on my table.
- Sinni stood before me.
इन वाक्यों में in, on, at, from, before के प्रयोग से स्थान व्यक्त हुआ है।
Relation showing Agency or Instrumentality (माध्यम) :
कुछ Prepositions का प्रयोग माध्यम प्रकट करता है। इस प्रकार के सम्बन्ध प्रकट करने के लिए By, With, Through का प्रयोग होता है। By का प्रयोग व्यक्ति के लिए, With का प्रयोग वस्तु (चाकू, खंजर, तलवार आदि) के लिए और दूर से चलाने वाले हथियारों (बन्दूक, तीर-कमान, भाला, आदि) के लिए By का प्रयोग होता है; जैसे-
- Some trains are run by electricity.
- Anil goes to office by car.
- Sheela cut her finger with a knife.
- The house was destroyed by fire.
- I heard this through a friend.
- The bird was killed by a hunter.
नोट– वाक्य 3 तथा 6 को ध्यान से पढ़िए। व्यक्ति द्वारा कार्य करने पर By का प्रयोग होता है। औजार (यन्त्र) का प्रयोग होने पर With का प्रयोग होता है।
Relationship Showing Manner (कार्यविधि) :
Without, With और Through से कार्यविधि प्रकट होती है; जैसे-
- He solved the problem without any difficulty.
- He met the challenge with courage.
- I have learnt this formula by heart.
- At Sharjah our cricket team won with ease.
- The condition of the patient is critical.
- He is dying by inches.
- He succeeded in the end as he worked with earnest.
Relation showing Cause or Purpose (कारण या उद्देश्य) :
कारण या उद्देश्य प्रकट करने के लिए of तथा For का प्रयोग होता है; जैसे-
- He died of cholera.
- The patient died of a heart attack.
- Mother Teressa did much for the good of the lepers.
- She is doing a lot for the welfare of the weak.
Relation showing Source, Origin and Inference (स्रोत, उद्गम और निष्कर्ष) :
From द्वारा स्रोत, उद्गम और निष्कर्ष व्यक्त किया जाता है; जैसे-
- These lines are from the poem ‘The Seekers’.
- I got this gift from my aunt.
- We get light from the sun.
- Skill comes from practice.
- He did it from gratitude.
Relation showing Measure and Rate (माप, मूल्यदर) :
By का प्रयोग Measure (माप) क लिए जबकि At का प्रयोग Rate (मूल्यदर) प्रदर्शित करने के लिए होता है; जैसे-
- Now cloth is sold by the metre.
- Milk is sold by the litre these days.
- It is four o’clock by my watch.
- Mangoes are sold at ten rupees a kilo in Delhi.
- Mukesh is taller than Mahesh by two inches.
Relation showing Contrast and Concession (विरोध और छूट) :
After, For, With द्वारा Contrast तथा Concession व्यक्त होता है; जैसे-
- After every effort one may fail.
- For one enemy, he has a hundred friends.
- For all his wealth he is not satisfied.
- With all his faults, I admire my friend.
Prepositions Used After Verbs
कुछ ऐसे Prepositions भी हैं कि उनके बाद कुछ निश्चित क्रियाओं का ही प्रयोग हो सकता है। वाक्य के भाव के अनुसार Verbs के बाद Prepositions बदल जाते हैं। इनका वर्णन निम्न है-
1. At का प्रयोग :
- What are you aiming at?
- The train has arrived at the station.
- I knocked at the door but nobody answered.
- We shall not laugh at others.
- Look at the black-board.
- The Principal was angry with the clerk at his negligence.
- My daughter is good at English.
- You are slow at work.
- Mohan came here at 5 o’clock.
- Shila gets up at 6 o’clock.
- Mangoes are selling at twelve rupees a kilo.
- Each article was sold at over a rupee..
2. About का प्रयोग :
- The plan is about the good of the poor.
- I was anxious about the welfare of my brother.
- You shall be careful about your health.
- When you are doubtful about a word, consult a dictionary.
- Don’t loiter about the street.
- Do you know any thing about Rajesh?
- I have no doubt about your honesty.
3. By का प्रयोग :
- Ravan was killed by Ram.
- Tom was punished by his aunt.
- Cloth is sold by the metre.
- My father returns home by 6 o’clock in the evening.
- Some trains are run by electricity.
- I sometime go to office by car.
- Milk is sold by the litre.
- She sat by the fire and told me a tale.
- She sat by the college door.
- He must have reached there by now.
4. In का प्रयोग :
- I believe in your honesty.
- My pen is in my pocket.
- He will never fail in his duty.
5. For का प्रयोग :
- I shall call for you at six.
- He does not care for criticism.
- I searched for my pen.
- I am looking for my friend.
- I hope for better days to come.
- The farmer started for his field early in the morning.
- Don’t wish for a television set.
- A man has great affection for fame and fortune.
- I have no ambition for fame or fortune.
- We see your anxiety for getting a good job.
- I have no aptitude for science.
- Are you a candidate for the post of a lecturer?
- You have no capacity for hard work.
- We must find out a cure for the ills in our society.
- There is a great demand for technical hands in the country.
- I have no desire for anything.
- I cannot give you any guarantee for employment.
- The book is written for the good of students.
- The Taj has no match for its beauty in our country.
- His need for a house is most pressing.
- There is no necessity for a private meeting.
- Have you no pity for this poor old servant?
- I have a great regard for my teacher, Mr. Azijuddin.
- I have purchased this pen for my granddaughter, Himani.
- He did not consider my request for transfer.
- You shall get good reward for your service.
- I have no taste for music.
- He has a great thirst for knowledge.
- These books are of no use for me.
- The bank demands a surety for sanctioning a loan.
- Jaunpur is famous for its perfumes.
6. From का प्रयोग :
- These lines have been taken from the poem ‘Mercy’.
- The thief escaped from the prison.
- She departed from her husband with a smile.
- The apple fell from the tree.
- I have purchased this pen from the market.
7. Of का प्रयोग :
- What are the advantage of taking long walk in the morning?
- What is the cause of downfall of the Moughal Empire?
- There is hardly any chance of your success.
- He will take over the charge of new post today.
- The danger of an attack by our enemy is not yet over.
- Have you no fear of punishment?
- Your brother is in the habit of telling lies.
- I live in the hope of better days to come.
- I have no knowledge of astrology?
- Wordsworth was a poet of nature.
- Are you in need of money?
- The taste of honey is sweet.
- One leg of the table is broken.
- Nur Jehan was proud of her beauty.
- What is the use of going there?
- For want of money I cannot go to Khair.
- I am fond of eating sweets.
- This is the boy I was speaking of.
- What are you thinking of?
- Nothing will come out of nothing.
8. On का प्रयोग :
- What is your opinion on this point?
- The lion felt pity on the rat and let it go.
- The monkey sat on a wall.
- My books are on the table.
- There was a long discussion on the problem of dowry.
- Can I depend on you?
- Can I rely on what you say?
9. To का प्रयोग :
- Food is necessary to life.
- The dog is faithful to its master.
- He wants to go to school.
- I am grateful to you for your help.
- Death is preferable to dishonour.
- Your problem is similar to mine.
- He is true to his word.
- Good boys are obedient to their teachers.
- My house stands opposite to the Dauji Temple.
- He goes on Sunday to the church.
- We agree to your proposal.
- He applied to the principal for leave.
- This house belongs to Mukesh.
- He has invited me to dinner.
- Please listen to me carefully.
10. With का प्रयोग :
- Are you angry with me?
- Please believe me. I am with you.
- The tops of the mountains are covered with snow.
- He killed two birds with one shot.
- He was stabbed by a mad man with a sword.
Prepositions Used After Adjectives And Past Participles
Past Participles विशेषण (Adjective) के समान ही कार्य करते हैं। ये Verb की Third Form होते हैं। Adjectives/Participles के पश्चात आने वाले प्रमुख Prepositions का प्रयोग निम्न है-
About का प्रयोग :
- We should be careful about our health. (Adjective)
- She is anxious about her son’s safety. (Adjective)
With का प्रयोग :
- Are you angry with me? (Adjective)
- He is busy with his work. (Adjective)
- Is he very intimate with you? (Adjective)
- I am not popular with the students. (Adjective)
Of का प्रयोग :
- He is certain of his success. (Adjective)
- The path of progress is full of difficulties. (Adjective)
- I am glad of your success. (Adjective)
- Mr. Gupta is fond of sweets. (Adjective)
- It is good of you to help me. (Adjective)
- Yudhishthira was afraid of wild animals. (Adjective)
- The traveller was tired of waiting. (Past Participle)
- Your friend was accussed of lying. (Past Participle)
- Socrates was convicted of misleading the young men. (Past Participle)
In का प्रयोग :
- He is experienced in teaching. (Past Participle)
- I am interested in this work. (Past Participle)
- She is busy in her work. (Adjective)
- I am deficient in accounts. (Adjective)
- The clerk was found negligent in his duty. (Adjective)
- The trader is honest in his dealings. (Adjective)
For का प्रयोग :
- You are not eligible for this post. (Adjective)
- Rest is essential for a patient. (Adjective)
- I am not responsible for your loss. (Adjective)
- Green vegetables are useful for health. (Adjective)
- He is always prepared for any work. (Past Participle)
Use of Preposition as an Adverb
कुछ Preposition जैसे in, on, up, out, within शब्दों का प्रयोग Adverb की तरह किया जाता है। इन शब्दों का प्रयोग Preposition की तरह भी होता है। इनके उचित प्रयोग को समझने के लिए निम्न को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़िए-
|Do not think about him.||Go and run about.|
|Vimlesh is in the room.||Vimlesh has come in.|
|The book is on the table.||Let us move on.|
|The driver jumped off the car.||The wheel went off.|
|After a month she returned.||Father came soon after.|
|I have not slept since yesterday.||I have not seen him since.|
|I came before you.||I could not come before|
नोट:- Preposition के साथ उसका object आता है। Adverb के साथ Object नहीं आता है।
Exercise 1. Complete the following sentences with the help of Prepositions given below against every sentence in brackets :
- There is a temple …………. that hill. (on, at, in, over)
- Spread this carpet …………. the floor. (on, at over, under)
- Don’t run ………………. pleasures. (after, before, behind, for)
- The play was …………. to begin. (about, in, on, over)
- I woke up …………. 5 o’clock. (on, at, in, over)
- I returned from my office …………. 8 o’clock daily. (at, on, for, since)
- Sita sits …………. Kamala and Kunti. (among, between, amongst)
- Look …………. this picture. (at, on, over)
- He depended …………. his friend’s word. (at, on, over)
- The child was afraid …………. the policemen. (of, for, about)
- He was greedy …………. money. (for, of, about)
- Is learning not preferable …………. wealth? (to, than, from)
- His capacity …………. hard work is praiseworthy. (for, of, to)
- Please pay attention …………. what I say. (to, for, in)
- The clerk made a request …………. a month’s leave. (for, of, about)
Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences with the help of Prepositions given below:
(by, from, for, since)
- We should profit …………. experience.
- He kept the fast …………. a week.
- King Vikram was famous ………. his justice.
- Nelson is famous ……….. his victory at Trafalgar.
- Fetch a book …………. the boy.
- She made a new dress …………. Rojeria.
- The child fell …………….. a great height.
- The first prize was won …………… a young boy.
- He has been suffering from fever …………. yesterday.
- The boy was bitten ……….. a dog.
- The bird was killed …………. a cruel boy.
- Enter …………… this door.
- I have not seen him ……………. last week.
- He will join school…………… tomorrow.
- I have eaten nothing …… …. yesterday.
Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences with the help of Prepositions given below:
(at, to, with, in, on)
- She did not come here …………… 3 o’clock.
- Have you cut your finger ……. a knife?
- I congratulate you …………. your success in the examination.
- He was born …………… Gomat in U.P.
- Today I woke up …………. …… 8 o’clock.
- Mr. Gupta met me …………….. Sunday.
- Look …………. that picture.
- Come …………. me to the market.
- She could not go……… her mother’s village.
- While flying …………. Bombay Mr. Anil had a brief stop over at Udaipur.
- Why do you not spread the carpet …………. the floor?
- What is she looking …………. ?
- Open your book …………. page 80.
- Is he …………….. his room?
- He was killed by the robber ……….. an axe.
Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with suitable Prepositions :
- Good boys do not laugh …………. others.
- He wants a pen to write …………. .
- We shall go to Nainital …………. the summer vacation and stay there ………. two weeks.
- My house stands opposite …………. the post-office.
- This room is sufficient …………. us.
- Your brother is guilty …………. absenting himself from duty.
- The visitor got impatient …………. waiting.
- Lal Bahadur Shastri was worthy …………. admiration.
- You should be careful …………. your health.
- There was no objection …………. his proposal.
- Were you not a witness …………. the scene?
- I have no influence ……………. my subordinates.
- You have gained enough experience …………. this trade.
- She is hopeful …………. getting a good job.
- My friend was born …………. Delhi.
Frequently asked questions (FAQs) about preposition
What is a preposition?
A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in the sentence. It often indicates location, direction, time, or manner.
How do I determine the correct preposition to use?
Determining the correct preposition can be challenging, as it often depends on the specific context. However, learning prepositions commonly used with certain words or expressions can provide guidance. Dictionaries and grammar resources can also be helpful.
Can a word be both a preposition and another part of speech?
Yes, some words can function as both prepositions and other parts of speech, such as adverbs or conjunctions. It is important to consider the role of the word in the specific sentence to determine its function.
Are there any fixed rules for preposition usage?
While there are some general guidelines, prepositions can be quite flexible, and their usage often relies on idiomatic expressions and common usage patterns. It is essential to study prepositions in context and learn through exposure to the language.
What are some common mistakes to avoid when using prepositions?
Some common mistakes include using the wrong preposition, omitting necessary prepositions, or using prepositions where they are not needed. It is helpful to practice and pay attention to preposition usage in written and spoken English to improve accuracy.