In English grammar, understanding the different parts of speech is crucial for effective communication. Every word in the language belongs to a specific part of speech, which determines its role and function within a sentence. This article will delve into the definition of parts of speech, discuss the various categories, and provide examples to illustrate their usage.
What is Parts of Speech?
Parts of speech refer to the different categories or classes into which words are grouped based on their grammatical functions and properties. These categories help us understand how words relate to each other and contribute to the overall structure and meaning of a sentence.
Parts of Speech: वाक्य में प्रयोग के अनुसार शब्दों (Words) को भिन्न-भिन्न भागों में विभाजित किया जाता है। इन्हें शब्द-भेद (Parts of Speech) कहते हैं।
Definition of Parts of Speech
- One of the classes into which words are divided according to their grammar, such as noun, verb, adjective, etc. – The Oxford Learner’s Dictionary.
- One of the grammatical groups into which words are divided, such as noun, verb, and adjective. – The Cambridge Dictionary.
One of the groups that words are divided into, for example noun, verb, adjective, etc.
Types of Parts of Speech
8 Parts of Speech with Examples are given below (Parts of Speech आठ प्रकार के होते हैं):
- Noun (संज्ञा): A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea. It can function as the subject or object of a sentence, and it can be singular or plural. Examples: dog, city, happiness.
- Pronoun (सर्वनाम): A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun to avoid repetition. It refers to a person, thing, or idea previously mentioned or understood in the context. Examples: he, she, it, they.
- Adjective (विशेषण): An adjective is a word that describes or modifies a noun or pronoun, providing more information about its qualities or characteristics. Examples: beautiful, tall, happy.
- Verb (क्रिया): A verb is a word that expresses an action, occurrence, or state of being. It is the main component of a sentence and indicates what the subject does or experiences. Examples: run, eat, is.
- Adverb (क्रिया-विशेषण): An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb. It provides information about the manner, place, time, degree, or frequency of an action or quality. Examples: quickly, there, often.
- Preposition (सम्बन्धसूचक शब्द): A preposition is a word that establishes a relationship between a noun (or pronoun) and other words in a sentence. It indicates location, time, direction, or manner. Examples: in, on, at, with.
- Conjunction (संयोजक): A conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses. It shows how the different parts of a sentence are related to each other. Examples: and, but, or.
- Interjection (विस्मयसूचक शब्द): An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses strong emotions or sudden bursts of feeling. It is often used independently and followed by an exclamation mark. Examples: wow, oh, ouch.
Examples of Parts of Speech in Sentences:
- Noun: The dog chased the ball. (“dog” is a noun that functions as the subject of the sentence.)
- Pronoun: She is reading a book. (“she” is a pronoun that replaces the name of a female person.)
- Adjective: I have a beautiful house. (“beautiful” is an adjective that describes the quality of the noun “house.”)
- Verb: They danced all night. (“danced” is a verb that describes the action performed by the subject “they.”)
- Adverb: She sings beautifully. (“beautifully” is an adverb modifying the verb “sings,” indicating how she sings.)
- Preposition: The book is on the table. (“on” is a preposition that shows the relationship between the book and the table.)
- Conjunction: I like tea, but I don’t like coffee. (“but” is a conjunction connecting two contrasting statements.)
- Interjection: Wow, what a stunning view! (“wow” is an interjection expressing surprise or amazement.)
इन सभी Parts of Speech की परिभाषायें एवं उदाहरण विस्तार से आगे दिए जा रहे हैं-
A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु या स्थान को प्रकट करने वाले शब्द को Noun कहते हैं।
Examples of Noun:
- Ashoka was a great king.
- The rose smells sweet.
- Delhi is a big city.
- The sun is very hot.
- He is in the class.
- Come here, Mohan.
- Gold is yellow.
- Honesty is the best policy.
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में Ashoka, king, Delhi, city, rose, sun, gold, class, honesty, policy तथा Mohan का प्रयोग Nouns की तरह हुआ है।
A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.
सर्वनाम (Pronoun) वह शब्द है जो Noun के स्थान पर प्रयोग किया जा सके।
Examples of Pronoun:
- Madan is absent because he is ill.
- The books are where you left them.
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में he और them सर्वनाम (Pronoun) हैं क्योंकि he का प्रयोग Madan के लिए और them का प्रयोग books के लिए हुआ है।
Learn More: Pronoun – Definition, Types, Rules and Examples
An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun.
विशेषण (Adjective) वह शब्द है जो Noun के ज्ञान में कुछ वृद्धि करता है, अर्थात जो किसी संज्ञा (Noun) की विशेषता को प्रकट करता है।
Examples of Adjective:
- He is a brave boy.
- There are thirty boys in this class.
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में brave, thirty और this विशेषण (Adjective) हैं।
A Verb is a word used to say something about some person, place or thing.
क्रिया (Verb) वह शब्द है जिसे किसी व्यक्ति, स्थान या वस्तु के विषय में कुछ बताने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Examples of Verb:
- The girl wrote a letter.
- Delhi is a big city..
- He played cricket.
- The earth moves round the sun.
- Iron and copper are useful metals.
- The sun rises in the east.
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में wrote, is, are, played, rises, moves क्रियायें (Verbs) हैं।
Learn More: Verbs – Definition, Types, Usage and Examples
An Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a Verb, and Adjective or another Adverbs used in the sentence.
क्रिया-विशेषण (Adverb) वह शब्द होता है जो Verb, Adjective तथा वाक्य में प्रयुक्त अन्य Adverb की विशेषता प्रकट करता है।
Examples of Adverb:
- He worked the sum quickly. (quickly-क्रिया (Verb) worked को modify कर रहा है।)
- This flower is very beautiful. (very-विशेषण (Adjective) beautiful को modify कर रहा है।)
- She spoke quite correctly. (quite क्रिया-विशेषण (Adverb) correctly को modify कर रहा है।)
Modify का अर्थ है- अर्थ में वृद्धि करना अर्थात विशेषता प्रकट करना। अतः उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में quickly, very और quite- Adverbs हैं।
Learn More: Adverbs: Definition, Types, Usage and Examples
A Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person, place or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else.
सम्बन्धसूचक शब्द (Preposition) वह शब्द है जो किसी Noun या Pronoun के साथ प्रयोग में आकर उस Noun या Pronoun द्वारा सूचित व्यक्ति, स्थान या वस्तु का सम्बन्ध अन्य किसी Noun या Pronoun से प्रदर्शित करता है।
Examples of Preposition:
- There is a parrot in the garden.
- The girl is fond of songs.
- A little boy sat under a tree.
इन वाक्यों में in, of, under का प्रयोग Preposition की तरह हुआ है।
7. Conjunction (Connector)
A Conjunction is a word used to join two words or sentences.
संयोजक (Conjunction) वह शब्द है जो दो शब्दों या वाक्यों को जोड़ता है।
Examples of Conjunction:
- Rama and Hari are friends. (“and” Rama और Hari दो शब्दों को जोड़ता है।)
- Mohan ran fast but he missed the train. (“but”, ‘Mohan ran fast’ और ‘He missed the train’ को जोड़ता है।)
- Two and two make four. (“and” द्वारा दो शब्द Two और two जोड़े गये हैं।)
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में and और but संयोजक (Conjunction) हैं।
An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feelings.
विस्मयसूचक शब्द (Interjection) वह शब्द है जो अचानक हृदय से निकलने वाले उद्गारों को प्रकट करता है।
Examples of Interjection:
- Hurrah! we have won the match.
- Alas! she is dead.
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में Hurrah और Alas Interjection हैं।
Learn More: Interjections – Definition, Usage and Examples
Name the Part of Speech of each italicized word in the following sentences:
- Mohan sat on a wall.
- Where do you live?
- How very cold the night is!
- Edison invented the electric bulb.
- All roads lead to Delhi.
- Have mercy upon us.
- He has a good memory.
- We should profit by experience.
- I shot an arrow into the air.
- He has a chain of gold.
- His courage won him honour.
- Gold and silver are costly.
- Ah! Have they gone?
- He gave me five apples.
- The sun rises in the east.
- Akbar was a great king.
- The girl wrote a letter to her cousin.
- This flower is very beautiful.
- The lazy boy was punished.
- The hand has five fingers.
In Summary, The different categories into which words are grouped based on their grammatical functions and properties in English grammar.
Examples: Nouns (person, place, thing), Verbs (action, state), Adjectives (descriptive), Adverbs (modifies verbs/adjectives), Pronouns (replaces nouns), Prepositions (relationships), Conjunctions (connects), Interjections (expresses emotions).
FAQs FROM PARTS OF SPEECH
What are the eight parts of speech?
The eight parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.
What is a noun?
A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea. It can be a subject, object, or possessive in a sentence.
What is a verb?
A verb is a word that expresses an action, occurrence, or state of being. It is the central component of a sentence and indicates what the subject does or experiences.
What is an adjective?
An adjective is a word that describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. It provides more information about the qualities or characteristics of the noun or pronoun.
What is an adverb?
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. It provides information about the manner, place, time, degree, or frequency of an action or quality.
What is a pronoun?
A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun to avoid repetition. It refers to a person, thing, or idea previously mentioned or understood in the context.
What is a preposition?
A preposition is a word that establishes a relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. It indicates location, time, direction, or manner.
What is a conjunction?
A conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses. It shows how the different parts of a sentence are related to each other.
What is an interjection?
An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses strong emotions or sudden bursts of feeling. It is often used independently and followed by an exclamation mark.
How many parts of speech are there in English?
There are traditionally eight parts of speech in English: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. However, some sources may categorize them differently or include additional subcategories.